Home Medicine Study The Penis (Human Anatomy): Diagram, Function, Conditions, Tests & Treatments

The Penis (Human Anatomy): Diagram, Function, Conditions, Tests & Treatments


The penis is a male sex organ, and it reaches its entire size when a man reaches the age of puberty. The penis is extremely essential for sexual functioning and reproduction, and it is also responsible for providing a conduit for the urine to exit the human body.

The penis contains the following parts:

1. Glans

Also referred to as the head of the penis, its shape and color tend to be different amongst circumcised and uncircumcised men. For instance, uncircumcised men have a glans that is covered with mucosa, which is basically a pink moist tissue. And in circumcised men, a surgical operation is conducted to remove the foreskin in order to turn the mucosa atop the glans into dry skin.

2. Corpus cavernosum

These are basically two columns of tissues that travel on both sides of the penis. These tissues are filled with blood, and they are responsible for causing an erection.

3. Corpus spongiosum

This is a column of tissues that are like sponge, and they travel from the front of the penis and end at the penis head. The urethra runs through this part of the penis. When the penis is erect, the corpus spongiosum fills up with blood, and it also keeps the urethra open.

This post provides a diagram of the penis and describes its function, parts, and conditions that can affect the penis.
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Image: health-zone.org

4. Urethra

The urethra is responsible for emptying the urine out of the body, and it runs from within the corpus spongiosum.

The penis experiences an erection due to the changes that occur in the blood flowing through the penis. When a man feels sexually aroused, his brain nerves command the penis blood vessels to expand, and this increases the inflow of blood into the penis, while decreasing the out flow of blood from the penis. This process hardens the tissue in the corpus cavernosum, and the man gets an erection.

Panis Conditions

1. Balanitis

It refers to inflammation within the glans penis, and its most common symptoms include severe redness of the penis head, extreme pain and tenderness.

2. Balanoposthitis

This is a kind of balanitis that also spreads towards the foreskin. Research reveals that it is likelier to occur amongst men who are uncircumcised.

3. Chordee

A medical term that refers to the formation of an abnormal curvature atop the end of the penis. This is a defect by birth, and if the case is extremely severe, doctors will have to perform a surgical operation to correct this defect.

4. Chlamydia

This penile ailment occurs when a bacteria infects the penis during sexual intercourse, and it eventually leads to urethritis. Research reveals that nearly 40% cases of chlamydia amongst men tend to exhibit no real symptoms at all.

5. Erectile dysfunction

This is a medical term for a condition where a man cannot achieve sufficient penile hardness needed for a pleasant sexual experience. Erectile dysfunction is most commonly caused by atherosclerosis, which refers to severe damage in the arteries.

6. Gonorrhea

Research reveals that majority cases of gonorrhea amongst men tend to cause several pain in the penis, which worsens during discharge and urination. It is caused by a bacteria known as gonorrhea, which infects the penis during sexual intercourse. This ailment eventually leads to urethritis.

7. Herpes

This refers to the viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2, which can cause the formation of tiny blisters and ulcers atop the penis. These symptoms tend to reoccur after a certain period of time.

8. Hypospadias

A defect that occurs at birth, and it refers to a condition where the opening passage for the urine is either on the underside or the front, instead of its normal place on the tip of the penis. Doctors use a surgical operation to correct this defect.

9. Micropenis

This is a defect by birth and it refers to an abnormally tiny penis. Research reveals that most cases of Micropenis occur due to hormonal imbalances.

10. Penis cancer

Research reveals that this disease is extremely rare in the USA, but if you still want to take preventive measures to reduce its risk, doctors recommend circumcision.

11. Penis warts

Human Papillomavirus, commonly known as HPV, is responsible for the generation of warts atop the penis. HPV warts are extremely contagious, and they tend to transmit during sexual intercourse.

12. Peyronie’s Disease

This refers to the formation of an abnormal curvature on the shaft of a penis. It can occur due to a severe injury of an adult penis, and some other medical ailments.

13. Phimosis

More commonly known as paraphimosis, it refers to a condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be retracted, or if it has been retracted, it is unable to return to its usual position atop the penis head. This often tends to occur amongst adult male patients suffering with penis infections.

14. Priapism

This is an extremely painful condition where the penis develops an abnormal erection that refuses to subside for hours, despite the fact that stimulation has ceased. It can cause several severe penile ailments.

15. Syphilis

This is kind of bacteria that gets transmitted while having sex. Its earliest symptoms include chancre, which is basically a painless ulcer that develops on the penis.

16. Urethritis

This is a kind of infection or inflammation that develops within the urethra, and its most common causes include chlamydia or gonorrhea. It causes immense pain, particularly while penis discharge and urination.

Penis Tests

1. Nocturnal penis tumescence testing

More commonly referred to as erection testing, this procedure requires the patient to wear an elastic device on their penis while sleeping at night. This device will allow the doctors to detect his erections while he is asleep, and it will also help detect the underlying cause responsible for the erectile dysfunction.

2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

PCR is a urine test that helps doctor identify and diagnose several organismic penile ailments, including chlamydia and gonorrhea.

3. Urethral swab

Doctors extract a swab of the inner regions of the penis, and send it to a medical lab for culture. This procedure is considered essential in order to diagnose several urinary infections, including urethritis.

4. Urinalysis

Doctors conduct a urinalysis in order to detect and examine the presence of chemicals within the urine. This procedure is essential to diagnose urine infections, bleeding or signs of kidney damage.

5. Urine culture

Doctors culture the urine in a medical lob in order to identify and diagnose a urinary tract infection that might be ailing the penis.

Penis Treatments

1. Antibiotics

Doctors prescribe antibiotics to treat several bacterial infections that develop on the penis, including syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia.

2. Antiviral medications

Doctors prescribe antiviral medications in order to suppress HSV, and prevent the outbreak of allergies or infections on the penis, such as herpes.

3. Penis surgery

Surgical operation can improve cases of hypospadias, and doctors often consider it essential in order to cure penis cancer.

4. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

These are medicines that doctors prescribe to improve the flow of blood towards the penis, in order to harden the erections. These medicines include Viagra and sildenafil.

5. Testosterone

Reduced testosterone levels are the rarest causes of erectile dysfunction. Doctors prescribe testosterone supplements to bring about an improvement in men suffering from erectile dysfunction.

Penile ailments tend to be extremely painful with direly fatalistic consequences. Therefore, it is essential to take effective nourishment and preventive measures for your penile health.


  1. what are the causes of weak erection,erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation,and lack of libido,and how can they be treated

  2. ED is real. Testosterone, glans dryness, lower back injury, masturbation practices, psychological stress and SSRI antidepressants continue to be the variables of examination, diagnostics, and erectile prosthesics.

  3. The causes of of these sexual problems you have referred to can be many and complex.
    They can have a physical cause if a person has cardiac problems and taking medication; if one is overweight and unfit; if one is suffering from chronic back and sciatica problems; recovering form surgery; if one’s diabetes is high and not managed; if one has suffered an injury to that area of his body; if one has thyroid dysfunction and getting treatment for cancer, to mention a few major physical causes.
    Psychological causes include if someone is depressed or anxious and taking certain type antidepressants and benzodiazepines; if one is addicted to pornography; going through relationship problems, separation and divorce; difficulty forming relationships; past sexual abuse and low self esteem, to mention some psychological causes.
    To treat any of these sexual problems one must identify their causes. It’s advisable to test for physical causes for these problems at the outset then obtain a referral to a psychologist or psychiatrist if they are deemed to have a psychological genesis.


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