Expecting the twin refers to the doubling of changing diaper that means doubling of fun and delight. But what about the complications experienced during pregnancy? Will it be a cause of harm to any of your unborn babies?
Complications Associated with Twin Pregnancy:
Pregnancy complications are being increased due to the additional fetus carried by the womb; these complications are very hazardous and life-threatening to both the fetuses and the mother as well.
You can experience following 12 types of complications during the twin pregnancy.
1. Placental Abruption
This abruption occurs more commonly in the twin pregnancy as compared to the single one. Pre-eclampsia causes the membrane rupturing leading to the placental abruption. Here placenta gets detached from the uterine wall before the onset of delivery. This usually occurs during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. It enhances the chances of the vaginally positioned delivery of the first baby.
Main causes discussed by the medical practitioners involved are malnutrition, smoking, and the intake of harmful drugs. Proper parental care and intake of a balanced diet can help to easily overcome this abruption.
2. Low-Birth Weight
This low birth weight is generally associated with preterm delivery. Baby is almost <5.5 pounds (2500 grams) in weight. Due to this reason, twin babies are at higher risk of long-term health complications.
These risks involve vision problem, hearing problems, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy.
3. Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a common process occurring during twin pregnancy. The blood sugar level is being increased due to the development of the resistance towards insulin production by both placentae.
The major causes of this diabetes are the elevated placental size and the increased level of hormones.
4. Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)
The growth rate of twins begins to be very slow from 30 to 32 weeks in this problem. This occurs when the placenta is unable to handle more growth of twins because both the fetus requires sufficient nutrients.
IUGR is being detected with ultrasound by measuring the abdominal size.
During pregnancy carrying twins, there are higher risks of developing the pre-eclampsia and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension that is “PIH”.
With taking adequate care and precautionary measures, risks of developing any serious problem from the pre-eclampsia can be decreased easily.
6. Preterm Labor or Delivery
The delivery that occurs before completing 37 weeks of pregnancy is termed as preterm delivery.
This causes a decrease in length of gestation period due to the additional fetus in the womb. This gives a ride to the ruptured premature ovarian membranes that lead to the starting of labor before 37 weeks of pregnancy.
Hence, the body of premature twins is unable to develop properly containing immature organs, small-sized babies and lesser in weight. The baby requires medical aid for everything; still, they remain vulnerable to the infectious microorganisms. They are then given special care in NICU “neo-natal intensive care unit”.
Almost 60% of twin pregnancy risks end up with the preterm delivery as per concluded by the researchers.
7. Birth Defects
Congenital anomalies are increased in twin pregnancies. The most common birth defects being experienced during pregnancy are neural tube defection, spina bifida, heart abnormality, and gastrointestinal disorders.
8. Post-partum Hemorrhage
Postpartum hemorrhage is developed due to the higher involvement of over distended uterus and a larger area of the placenta.
This can be a cause of the extreme leveled bleeding during and after the session of delivery.
9. Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome
Twin to Twin transfusion syndrome is a medical condition that occurs when identical twins are sharing a similar placenta. Blood vessels present within placenta supply the blood and oxygen from one fetus to the another.
In twin to twin transfusion syndrome, the mutual blood vessel connection shunts the flow of blood from one fetus to another fetus. Meanwhile, the fetus of the recipient gets more supply of blood than the second fetus. It gives rise to the overloading of the cardiovascular system and it enhances the amniotic fluid levels. In result, the fetus of donor twin is unable to obtain enough supply of blood and this gives the lesser quantity of amniotic fluid.
Twin to twin transfusion syndrome is overcome and treated by gynecologists by withdrawing of the excess body fluid using the needles.
10. Cesarean Delivery
Cesarean delivery is mostly conducted when the fetus is in an abnormal position. Most probably, delivery containing twines occurs vaginally, but it is dependent upon the positioning of fetus.
11. Cord Entanglement
The cord is being entangled by the identical twins sharing the same amniotic sac.
During the third trimester of pregnancy, the doctor examines the growth rate of both fetuses. If any kind of complexity is existing there, the doctor recommends immediate preterm delivery.
12. Fetal Loss
Intra-uterine fetal loss is rare to occur. Gynecologist examines the health condition and then decides either medical involvement is required or not. During fraternal twins and chorionic pregnancy, intervention is not being conducted immediately.
Remember, if your pregnancy has a single chorion, then delivery is recommended immediately in fetal loss case.
Important Tips or Guidelines:
During Twin pregnancy, the following precautions should be kept in mind and be implemented very well to avoid certain complications, they are as:
1. Preterm labor and pre-eclampsia signs and symptoms should be highly familiarized by the people.
2. Weight gain and loss is the major attribute affecting your baby during pregnancy especially the weight that is being gained before the 20 weeks. A healthy weight should be put on to minimize the risks of low birth weight and premature labor.
3. A very well-balanced diet should be taken into.
4. A plentiful amount of healthy drinks must be consumed to avoid you from dehydration.
5. Staying healthy and fit helps to cope up with the latent pregnancy complications that are majorly associated with the twin pregnancies.
6. During twin pregnancy, enhanced blow by blood gives rise to the dropping of the iron level immediately. This condition leads the patient to suffer from severe complications like acute anemia that is even more dangerous for both the fetuses and the mother herself. Iron supplements are being referred to in this case by the gynecologist to the mother.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: “Having Twins.”
- March of Dimes: “Multiples: Twins, Triplets and Beyond.”
- National Institutes of Health: “Twins, Triplets, and Multiple Births.”
- Nemours Foundation: “Preparing for Multiple Births.”